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Friday the 19th of January, 2018
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PAST PERFECT (ACTIVE VS. PASSIVE)

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Welcome to our last lesson of the week, everyone! We have looked at four different lessons about the Past Perfect. Today, we look at the PASSIVE PAST PERFECT.

The passive form of the Past Perfect follows this form:

had + been + past participle

Example 1: The dryer had been repaired twice before it finally broke.

The repairs, in example 1, came before the breaking. Notice that we are not interested in who repaired the dryer, so we use the passive.

Example 2: She had been told that swimming with sharks was dangerous, but she still went. 

Example 3: We had been advised to arrive at the airport three hours early because of weather delays. 

That's it for the week about the Past Perfect. I hope you learned some new things about this tense!

Have a wonderful weekend. We will see you on Monday when we begin a week of practice with Cambridge FCE Reading and Use of English Part 3.



Tuesday the 23rd of May, 2017
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TENSE TUESDAY: ACTIVE VS. PASSIVE PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS

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Good morning to all of you Daily Vitamin readers!

How's your day going? What are you doing right now, and for how long have you been doing this thing? In your answer you can use the Present Perfect Continuous

HAVE / HAS + BEEN + -ING

Example 1: I have been working since 9 AM. 

Today we are looking at the PASSIVE version of the Present Perfect Continuous

HAS + BEEN + BEING + past participle

Example 2: The building has been being built for the last ten years.

Does that sound strange to you? That's because we rarely use the PASSIVE form of the Present Perfect Continuous. However, in this case it's very logical to use the passive: the building cannot build itself, right? When we do not know the agent (the thing completing the action) or don't want to emphasise it, then we use the PASSIVE. In sentence 2 the emphasis is on the action of building (or constructing) the building, not on who did it.

That's all for today. Thank you for reading!



Tuesday the 16th of May, 2017
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TENSE TUESDAY: ACTIVE VS. PASSIVE SIMPLE PAST

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Good morning everyone and welcome to Tuesday's Daily Vitamin!

Today we are looking at the ACTIVE and PASSIVE forms of the Simple Past.

Remember that the Simple Past form of a verb in English has the -ED ending (if it's a regular verb): loved, hated, locked, etc. Irregular verbs change form; consider the following irregular verbs.

-go (present) went (past)
-see (present) saw (past)
-take (present) took (past)
etc.


The Simple Past Passive uses the following form: 

was + past participle

What's the difference between the ACTIVE and PASSIVE? Each one places a different emphasis on a different part of the sentence. With the ACTIVE sentence, the emphasis is on the subject

Example 1: Sarah planned the party.
(The emphasis is on Sarah.)

Example 2: The party was planned by Sarah.
(The emphasis is on the party.)

Notice that the form of the past participle (planned) and the simple past (planned) are the same. This happens often, although there are lots of exceptions.

That's all for today. Thank you for reading!



Tuesday the 02nd of May, 2017
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TENSE TUESDAY: ACTIVE VS. PASSIVE PRESENT CONTINUOUS

LISTEN TO THE DAILY VITAMIN HERE:

Hello, everyone! I hope that you had a nice weekend and for those of you who didn't work yesterday, I hope you had a wonderful holiday. 

For today's Tense Tuesday, we are comparing the ACTIVE and PASSIVE forms of the Present Continuous. Here are their forms. 

ACTIVE: is/am/are + -ING

PASSIVE: is/am/are + being + past participle (by + agent)

We use the ACTIVE Present Continuous for many things, including actions happening right now. We use the PASSIVE Present Continuous for the same thing, but the emphasis is different

Example 1: Tim is washing the car. 

Example 2: The car is being washed (by Tim). 

In the first example, Tim is important. The emphasis is on Tim and Tim's action. In the second example, the emphasis is on the car and the fact that the car is being washed. Tim is not as important (sorry, Tim). 

Let's look at two more examples. 

Example 3: The committee is preparing the documents. 

Example 4: The documents are being prepared (by the committee). 

Again, the committee is emphasized in Example 3, while the documents and the process of writing them is emphasized in Example 4. In the passive examples above, the agent is optional. We could say simply "The documents are being prepared."

That's all for today. Thanks for reading!